Working towards a world where trans, gender diverse and non-binary children are embraced and given every opportunity to thrive and flourish.

Statements by National and International Peak Professional Bodies Regarding Gender Affirming Care for Young People

American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP). See Statement Responding to Efforts to ban Evidence-Based Care for Transgender and Gender Diverse Youth (2019)

American Academic of Pediatrics AAP). See Ensuring Comprehensive Care and Support for Transgender and Gender-Diverse Children and Adolescents (2018)

Australian Psychological Society (APS). See Transgender and gender diverse children (undated)

World Professional Association for Transgender Health (WPATH), United States Professional Association for Transgender Health (USPATH), and European Professional Association for Transgender Health (EPATH). See WPATH/USPATH/EPATH statement in response to calls for banning evidence-based supportive health interventions for transgender and gender diverse youth (2019)

World Professional Association for Transgender Health (WPATH), European Professional Association for Transgender Health (EPATH), United States Professional Association for Transgender Health (USPATH), Asian Professional Association for Transgender Health (AsiaPATH), Canadian Professional Association for Transgender Health (CPATH),  Australian Professional Association for Trans Health (AusPATH), Professional Association for Transgender Health Aotearoa (PATHA). See WPATH, EPATH, USPATH, AsiaPATH, CPATH, AusPATH, PATHA Response to Bell v. Tavistock Judgment Statement Regarding Medical Affirming Treatment including Puberty Blockers for Transgender Adolescents (2020)

Royal Australasian College of Physicians (RACP). See RACP statement on gender dysphoria (2020)


Achille C, Taggart T, Eaton NR, Osipoff J, Tafuri K, Lane A and Wilson TA. Longitudinal impact of gender-affirming endocrine intervention on the mental health and well-being of transgender youths: preliminary results. International Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology (2020) 2020:8.

Allen LR, Watson LB, Egan AM and Moser CM. Well-being and suicidality among transgender youth after gender affirming hormones. Clinical Practice in Pediatric Psychology, 2019; 9: 3, 302-311

Bauer,G, Scheim,A, Pyne,J, Travers,R and Hammond,R (2015) Intervenable factors associated with suicide risk in transgender persons: a respondent driven sampling study in Ontario, CanadaBMC Public Health. 15:525. 

Brik,T, Vrouenraets,LJJJ, de Vries,MC and Hannema,M (2020) Trajectories of adolescents treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues for gender dysphoria. Archives of Sexual Behavior 49, 2611–2618.

Chew, D., Tollit, M. A., Poulakis, Z., Zwickl, S., Cheung, A. S., & Pang, K. C. (2020). Youths with a non-binary gender identity: a review of their sociodemographic and clinical profile.  The Lancet. Child & adolescent health, 4(4), 322–330.

Chong, L., Kerklaan, J., Clarke, S., Kohn, M., Baumgart, A., Guha, C., Tunnicliffe, D. J., Hanson, C. S., Craig, J. C., & Tong, A. (2021). Experiences and Perspectives of Transgender Youths in Accessing Health Care: A Systematic Review. JAMA pediatrics, 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2021.2061.

Costa,R, Dunsford,M, Skagerberg,E, Holt,V, Carmichael,P, and Colizzi,M (2015) Psychological support, puberty suppression, and psychosocial functioning in adolescents with gender dysphoria.  Journal of Sexual Medicine, 12, 11, 2206-14. 

Dahlgren Allen, S., Tollit, M. A., McDougall, R., Eade, D., Hoq, M., & Pang, K. C. (2021). A Waitlist Intervention for Transgender Young People and Psychosocial Outcomes.  Pediatrics, e2020042762. 

de Vries,AL, Doreleijers,TA, Steensma,TD and Cohen-Kettenis,PT (2011). Psychiatric comorbidity in gender dysphoric adolescents. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 52, 1195–1202. 

de Vries,AL, McGuire,JK, Steensma,TD, Wagenaar,EC, Doreleijers,TA and Cohen-Kettenis,PT (2014). Young adult psychological outcome after puberty suppression and gender reassignmentPediatrics, 134, 696–704. 

de Vries,AL, Steensma,TD, Doreleijers,TA and Cohen-Kettenis,PT (2011). Puberty suppression in adolescents with gender identity disorder: A prospective follow-up study.  Journal of Sexual Medicine 8, 2276–2283. 

Durwood,L, McLaughlin,KA and Olson,KR (2017). Mental health and self-worth in socially transitioned transgender youth. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 56, 116–123. 

Hill,AO, Lyons,A, Jones,J, McGowan,I, Carman,M, Parsons,M, Power,J, and Bourne,A (2021) Writing Themselves In 4: The health and wellbeing of LGBTQA+ young people in Australia.National report, monograph series number 124. Melbourne: Australian Research Centre in Sex, Health and Society, La Trobe University. 

Klein,A and Golub,SA (2016). Family rejection as a predictor of suicide attempts and substance misuse among transgender and gender nonconforming adults.  LGBT Health, 3, 3, 193-9. 

Mahfouda S, Moore JK, Siafarikas A, Zepf FD and Lin A (2017) Puberty suppression in transgender children and adolescents. Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology, 5, 816-826. 

Mahfouda S, Moore JK, Siafarikas A, Hewitt T, Ganti U, Lin A and Zepf FD (2019). Gender-affirming hormones and surgery in transgender children and adolescents. Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology, 7, 6, 484-498.

Olson,KR, Durwood,L and McLaughlin,KA (2016). Mental health of transgender children who are supported in their identities.  Pediatrics 137:e20153223. 

Olson-Kennedy,J, Warus,J, Okonta,V, Belzer,M and Clark,LF (2018) Chest reconstruction and chest dysphoria in transmasculine minors and young adults: Comparisons of nonsurgical and postsurgical cohorts. JAMA Pediatrics, 172, 5, 431-436.  

Rosenberg,S, Carman,M, Bourne,A, Starlady, Cook,T (2021). Research Matters: Trans and gender diverse health and wellbeing. Australia: Rainbow Health Victoria

Russell,ST, Pollitt,AM, Li,G and Grossman,AH (2018) Chosen name use is linked to reduced depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and suicidal behavior among transgender youth.  Journal of Adolescent Health, 63, 4, 503-505.

Simons,L, Schrager,SM, Clark,LF, Belzer,M and Olson,J (2013). Parental support and mental health among transgender adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health 5, 791–793. 

Strang, J. F., Meagher, H., Kenworthy, L., de Vries, A., Menvielle, E., Leibowitz, S., Janssen, A., Cohen-Kettenis, P., Shumer, D. E., Edwards-Leeper, L., Pleak, R. R., Spack, N., Karasic, D. H., Schreier, H., Balleur, A., Tishelman, A., Ehrensaft, D., Rodnan, L., Kuschner, E. S., Mandel, F., … Anthony, L. G. (2018). Initial Clinical Guidelines for Co-Occurring Autism Spectrum Disorder and Gender Dysphoria or Incongruence in Adolescents. Journal of clinical child and adolescent psychology : the official journal for the Society of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, American Psychological Association, Division 53, 47(1), 105–115.

Turban,JL, Beckwith,N, Reisner,SL and Keuroghlian,AS (2019). Association between recalled exposure to gender identity conversion efforts and psychological distress and suicide attempts among transgender adultsJAMA Psychiatry, 1-9. 

Turban, J. L., King, D., Carswell, J. M., & Keuroghlian, A. S. (2020). Pubertal Suppression for Transgender Youth and Risk of Suicidal Ideation. Pediatrics, 145(2), e20191725.

Turban,J, Loo,S, Almazan,A, and Keuroghlian, A. (2021). Factors Leading to ‘‘Detransition’’ Among Transgender and Gender Diverse People in the United States: A Mixed-Methods Analysis. LGBT Health, 8(4).

Ullman, J. (2021), Free to Be…Yet?: The second national study of Australian high school students who identify as gender and sexuality diverse. Centre for Educational Research, School of Education, Western Sydney University, Penrith. 

van der Miesen,AIR, Steensma,TD, de Vries,ALC, Bos,H and Popma,A. (2020) Psychological functioning in transgender adolescents before and after gender-affirmative care compared with cisgender general population peers. Journal of Adolescent Health, 66, 6, 699-704. 

Wiepjes CM, Nota,NM, de Blok,CJM, Klaver,M, de Vries,ALC, Wensing-Kruger,SA, de Jongh,RT, Bouman,MB, Steensma,TD, Cohen-Kettenis,P, Gooren,LJG, Kreukels,BPC and den Heijer,M (2018). The Amsterdam cohort of gender dysphoria study (1972 – 2015): Trends in prevalence, treatment, and regrets. Journal of Sexual Medicine,15, 4, 582-590. 

Zaliznyak,M, Bresee,C and Garcia,M (2020). Age at first experience of gender dysphoria among transgender adults seeking gender-affirming surgery. Journal of the American Medical Association Network Open, 3(3):e201236.

Strauss, P., Cook, A., Winter, S., Watson, V., Wright Toussaint, D., Lin, A. (2017). Trans Pathways: the mental health experiences and care pathways of trans young people. Summary of results. Telethon Kids Institute, Perth, Australia.